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The United Nations Lovian Order Restoration Force (UNLOR [pronounced Un-lore]) is a United Nations peacekeeping mission formally approved and authorized by United Nations Security Resolution 2011 on October 7, 2011. UNLOR's goal is to end the violence against Lovian citizens under the principle of responsibility to protect, and to restore stability on the Lovian archipelago, following the Lovian Civil War. As of October 8th UNLOR deployed a 800-heads strong task force, excluding technical personnel. MP's and military equipment are contributed by the United States and Canada, while local detachments of Lovian police participate under the UNLOR flag. Technical support and advisors are delivered by Lovia itself, as well as Mexico.
The UNLOR mission is financed entirely by the UN funds, though no budget has been determined yet. It is estimated the entire operation will cost between 600,000 and 900,000 L$. UNLOR withdrawal is expected to begin ultimately on October 20th, though the mission will probably continue for another month. The UNLOR forces are under the command of general Levi McArthur.
The United Nations has stated they will keep UNLOR in place until order is kept. Levi McArthur has stated that UNLOR will go back to Lovia at any time the National Police cannot maintain order and Congress re-approves aid.
A second UN mission, UNLOR II is being proposed as Lovia is being torn apart and the National Police is unable to maintain order.
Legal framework Edit
The Lovian Congress approved a bill calling for UN intervention. In this bill, proposed by MOTC Yuri Medvedev, Lovia "declares that it wishes [...] to come under the protection of a United Nations peacekeeping force". The bill gives the United Nations a mandate to protect Lovian citizens from the ongoing minority and police violence, as well as to bring an end to the riots. The bill was approved with the support of the CPL.nm, SDP, LDP and the CCPL. This ideologically diverse coalition gave the bill a 53% majority. Parties that disapproved foreign intervention were the UNS and LCP most notably. As soon as the bill got approved, Prime Minister Marcus Villanova initiated a procedure at the UN.
The United Nations Security Council assembled to decide on the Lovian demand for an intervention. Resolution 2011 for the creation of a UNLOR peacekeeping force was a joint Lovian-American proposal. It got accepted on October 7, 2011. UNLOR's goal is in the resolution described as "to end the violence against Lovian citizens under the principle of responsibility to protect". The principle of R2P was not mandatory since Lovia itself called for an intervention, but was nonetheless included to stress the goals of the peacekeeping mission. The Security Council voted the proposal unanimously and thus no veto's were used.
The Lovian bill also calls for the installment of "a Commission to investigate the riots and the ties it has with government officials". The UN already made clear that if the Lovian law system should fail to bring justice, extradition of 'war criminals' to the International Criminal Court is a valid option.
Participation and contributions Edit
The UNLOR mission is financed entirely by the UN funds, though no budget has been determined yet. 800 MP's and military equipment are contributed by the United States and Canada, while local detachments of Lovian police participate under the UNLOR flag. Technical support and advisors are delivered by Lovia itself, as well as Mexico. The military command of all UNLOR missions is in hands of US general Levi McArthur.
- Participating actors
- Supporting actors
So far, 21 civilian lives have been lost. Two of them were the American tourists killed at the beginning of the conflict. Military losses on UNLOR side are lower with only five lives lost. One of them was Canadian, the other American. The United States also lost a helicopter which was taken down by gunfire. Victims held hostage by the rebel forces total up to 18, of which ten civilians.
Major interventions Edit
Operation Hell Bound Edit
Operation Hell Bound is the first main offensive of UNLOR since deployment. On October 8th, Prior to the operation, rioters in the state of Kings were dispersed and many rebels got arrested. UNLOR offered conditions to some rebels who were willing to provide useful information. The intel gathered in the aftermath of this precursor confrontation lead to the setup of Operation Hell Bound. In the night between October 8th and October 9th, UNLOR troops invaded all remaining fought-over regions. Government control was restored in major parts of Clymene and on the Easternmost isles of Seven. During Operation Hell Bound, two UNLOR officers got badly injured. Death count on the rebel side is estimated at a minimum of six.
Also, during Operation Hell Bound, rebel ringleader Nikolai Koshkov captured by UNLOR forces while wandering in the mountains of Kings. It is believed he attempted to return to Seven. Koshkov was incarcerated in Newhaven and pressured upon to cooperate with the UNLOR command. It is currently unclear whether Koshkov provided any information to the UNLOR command and, if so, to what extent this influenced the operation.
Operation Kenneth Edit
After the UNLOR command threatened the rebels with the use of strategic air-strikes, the rebel authorities responded with the creation of a 'human shield', also endangering civilian lives. General Levi McArthur refused to launch the announced offensive and sought for other ways to turn the situation around. In an effort to disintegrate the rebel network, means of communication were blocked during Operation Kenneth. The operation took place round 11 AM on October 9th and consisted of closing down regional internet provisions, sabotaging telephone wires and jamming radio signals. Operation Kenneth was a success in that it caused nervousness with the rebel leaders. Also, rioters in the periphery of the fights were forced to surrender after vital communications with their headquarters were cut.
In response to Operation Kenneth, the rebels threatened to kill hostages - again both military and civilian - if the means of communication weren't restored. They also demanded negotiations over the recognition of a rebel state. The UNLOR command launched a counter-proposal which initiated a whole new 'diplomatic field of battle'. So far no actual agreement has been reached, but the UNLOR command sees this shift from aggressive to peaceful means as a result of the affected ability of the rebels to coordinate an offensive.
Operation Kenneth was named after the song What's The Frequency, Kenneth? by the recently retired band R.E.M.. The name was suggested by a Canadian team of ICT technicians, following the tradition of general McArthur and Operation Hell Bound.
Operation Badlands Edit
After the entry of Oceana nationalist movement Oslobodenia in the Civil War, and the subsequent change of heart of Oos Wes Ilava, UNLOR initiated Operation Badlands. The initiative came from Yuri Medvedev who wanted to safeguard his home state from the rising violence. Kings could (co-)represent the Lovian establishment in eventual peace talks, according Medvedev. Operation Badlands started on October 26 and exists in the establishment of a 'neutral zone', placing Kings outside the ongoing conflict. UNLOR enforced this by detaching defensive forces to the state's island and subsequently installing a no-fly zone over Kings. So far, no official reaction on Operation Badlands was given.
In compliance with the UNLOR tradition in naming major operations after songs, Operation Badlands is named after the eponymous song by American artist Bruce Springsteen. The name was chosen by Medvedev who is a fan of Springsteen.
Underneath is a timeline of the UNLOR establishment and operation. For a more detailed overview of the context, see the Lovian Civil War.
- October 4th, 0700: Riots break out in Lovia's northern states, Clymene and Seven. Violence is used against citizens.
- October 5th, 1200: The Lovian government fails to get control of the situation and a coup is attempted. The UN intensifies its observation of Lovia.
- October 5th, 2000: Two American tourists are lynched by rioters; the United States demand that the Lovian government communicates clearly.
- October 6th, 1200: The Lovian government fails to formulate an answer to what now seems to become a civil war. International attention for the situation rises.
- October 6th, 2300: No longer willing to await government initiative, MOTC Yuri Medvedev proposes a bill that calls for UN intervention.
- October 7th, 0800: The UN intervention is approved by Congress. Prime Minister Marcus Villanova informs the Lovian and American UN delegations.
- October 7th, 1400: The UN Security Council approves Resolution 2011, formally deciding to undertake a peacekeeping mission.
- October 8th, 0400: UNLOR forces are deployed across Lovia. Rebel forces in Kings are cut off from their base in Seven by a UN naval force.
- October 8th, 0600: UNLOR forces have secured the areas not affected by riots, thus encapsulating the violence.
- October 8th, 1530: The rioters in Kings are dispersed by UNLOR troops. Their march is halted and most rioters are arrested.
- October 8th, 1900: A UNLOR helicopter taking refugees to safety is taken down by gunfire. Two UNLOR pilots and eight civilians are killed.
- October 9th, 0001: UNLOR troops start Operation Hell Bound, an invasion in the fought-over regions.
- October 9th, 0400: Government control is restored in parts of Clymene and Seven. Two UNLOR officers have been badly injured; death count on the rebel side is estimated at six.
- October 9th, 0500: Rebel ringleader Nikolai Koshkov, while wandering in the mountains of Kings and attempting to return to Seven, is captured by UNLOR forces and incarcerated in Newhaven.
- October 9th, 0700: Fierce fighting outside Sofasi results in the capture of eight UNLOR soldiers and ten civilians. Nine rioters, three UNLOR soldiers and eleven citizens are killed.
- October 9th, 0900: A daring raid on a UNLOR convoy in retaliation of Koshkov's capture results in rebel demands; the first diplomatic contact since UN involvement.
- October 9th, 1000: The UNLOR command counters the rebel demands with an ultimatum of their own; the rebels are threatened with the use of strategic air-strikes.
- October 9th, 1105: UNLOR initiates Operation Kenneth in an effort to distort the rebel communication networkand to disintegrate the rebel network.
- October 9th, 1130: The rebels threaten to kill hostages - both military and civilian - if Operation Kenneth is not reverted. Also demanded are negotiations over the recognition of a rebel state.
- October 9th, 1200: The UNLOR command launches a counter-proposal that holds the exchange of Nikolai Koshkov and two other protagonist rebels for the 23 UNLOR officers. This agreement comes however with the condition that all civilians from the rebel territory may return to government-controlled land if they wish. In exchange for such a safe conduct, UNLOR is prepared to stop its advancement for the next five hours.
Ever since October 9, UNLOR troops made little advancement. Southern Kings was occupied by the HAMR Movement, but quickly regained. Rebellions broke out in Noble City and Oceana. In response to the rising turmoil, part of UNLOR was detached to Kings for the establishment and protection of a 'neutral zone'. Later on, UNLOR declared a no-fly zone over Kings.