| Modern Trainish|
|Spoken in:||Train Village|
|Total speakers:||11 (revival)|
|Language family:|| Indo-European|
|Writing system:||Latin script|
|Official language in:||nowhere|
|Regulated by:||no official regulation|
Modern Trainish is an extinct dialect of Lovian English, spoken by a small group of usually older people in and around the Lovian town of Train Village, Sylvania. It shared some characteristics with the present-day Beaver River dialects.
|Plosive||p b¹||t d¹||k ɡ¹||ʔ|
|Affricate||ts dz¹||tʃ dʒ¹|
|Fricative||ʋ¹||f v¹||θ ð¹||s z¹||ʃ ʒ¹||χ² ʁ²||h¹² ɦ¹²|
- Does not occur in coda position.
- The pairs /χ/ and /ʁ/, /h/ and /ɦ/, and /l/ and /ɫ/ are freely interchangeable.
- /w/ only occurs as an offglide in centralizing triphthongs.
Modern Trainish vowels have clearly been influenced by Train Village Dutch. The following table list words with vowels, followed by their Modern Trainish and General American pronunciation.
|Close||iː · yː||· uː|
|Near-close||ɪ · ʏ|
|Close-mid||eː · øː||· oː|
|Open||æ ·||ɑː · ɒː|
Modern Trainish had some very typical phonological and grammatical characteristics:
- The [r] is pronounced as /ʁ/.
- The [ʊ] is pronounced as /uː/.
- The /ɑːr/ sound as in car is now pronounced /ɑʊ̯wəʁ/, resulting in the unique car-cower merger.
- There is s-deletion for some words like pass, due to this pass is pronounced as pa'.
- Dutch and German loanwords like skeapen ("alderman", from Dutch schepen) and manshaft (from German Mannschaft).
- The ending sound /aɪt/ in words like bright and write is pronounced like the Dutch ei/ij sound: /ɛɪ̯/.
- The sound /ɪdʒ/, which constitutes the -idge word ending, is pronounced /ɪts/.
- Differences between male and female words in the case of possessive pronouns like me ("my"), your, and their, which become men, youn, and theirne when preceding a female noun or pronoun.
- Neologisms such as hornick (meaning "strong person", derived from horn, as horns are associated with strength).
- Some plurals forms, especially words derived from Latin, are different: the plural of center is centra in Modern Trainish, not centers as in Standard English.
- College and senate are pronounced /kəˈliːtʃ/ and /səˈneːt/ and exhibit a shifting stress to the last syllable, which is taken from Dutch. Business is pronounced /ˈbɪzinɪs/.
Origin of the nameEdit
|This section is under construction.|